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Trademark: What is the difference between the ®, the TM, the © and the circled D?

What is the difference between the ®, the TM, the © and the circled D?

A lot of symbols can be quite confusing, but each one has a very definite and important meaning for the consumers.

The circled R must be put next to a registered and granted in every way trademark. Rigorously this symbol must be added to those products circulating only in the country where the mark has been registered and not overseas, therefore if a mark for a particular wine is registered in Italy, the ® would be used only on bottles produced and sold in the Italian market, but not on those sold in other countries. Unfortunately this does not always happen, therefore what we see on a label is not always true; also some producers have the bad habit of putting the ® even if no trademark application has ever been made.

The TM is a symbol used when an application has been filed but not yet granted; it is used a lot in the Anglo-Saxon countries, whilst nationally we normally use the ® whether or not the mark has been granted.

The circled C is used in a totally different sector, normally for copyright works and is often followed by the name of the rights holder and the year of granting these.

Lastly, the circled D, which is quite rare, is put next to the object for which an application for design or model has been filed.